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Finalmente è ufficiale: la cannabis ha proprietà miracolose
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« Processo breve, si alla Camera. Migliaia di processi a rischio!Riprendiamoci Le Spiagge - WORKING IN PROGRESS »

Finalmente è ufficiale: la cannabis ha proprietà miracolose


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By Edoardo Capuano - Posted on 04 aprile 2011

In uno studio pubblicato sul web un paio di giorni fa dal,National Cancer Institute (sito governativo), si mettono finalmente nero su bianco (ma soprattutto ufficialmente) le grandi caratteristiche di questa pianta.

I cannabinoidi sono un gruppo di 21 composti terpenofenoli prodotti unicamente dalla Cannabis sativa e dalla Cannabis indica. [1,2] Questi composti derivanti dalla pianta possono essere indicati come phytocannabinoidi. Anche se il delta-9-tetraidrocannabinolo (THC) è il principale ingrediente psicoattivo, vi sono altri composti noti che hanno attività biologica tipo: il cannabinolo, il cannabidiolo, il cannabicromene, il cannabigerol, il tetrahydrocannabivirin, e il delta-8-THC. Il cannabidiolo, ha la caratteristica di avere una significativa attività analgesica e anti-infiammatoria senza l’effetto psicoattivo (alto) del delta-9-THC.

GLI EFFETTI ANTI TUMORALI

Uno studio su topi e ratti indica che i cannabinoidi hanno un effetto protettivo contro lo sviluppo di alcuni tipi di tumori. [3] Nel corso di questo studio di 2 anni, i gruppi di topi e di ratti hanno ricevuto varie dosi di THC attraverso una sonda gastrica. Nei topi, venne osservata, una riduzione sull’incidenza dei tumori epatici e sui carcinomi epatocellulari. Una minore incidenza dei tumori benigni (polipi o adenomi) negli altri organi (mammelle, utero, ghiandola pituitaria, testicoli e pancreas) vennero anche osservati nei ratti. In un altro studio, il delta-9-THC, il delta-8-THC, e il cannabinolo si sono dimostrati utili nell’inibire la crescita del carcinoma del polmone di Lewis in vitro ed in vivo. [4] Inoltre, altri tumori sono risultati sensibili agli effetti inibenti di questa pianta. [5-8]

I cannabinoidi possono causare effetti antitumorali attraverso vari meccanismi: inducendo la morte cellulare, interropendo la crescita cellulare, e attraverso l’inibizione dell’angiogenesi tumorale e della metastasi. [9-11] I cannabinoidi sembrano uccidere le cellule tumorali lasciando intatte quelle sane proteggendole, addirittura, da quelle cancerogene. Questi composti hanno dimostrato di indurre l’apoptosi nei glioblastomi sotto coltura e indurre la regressione degli stessi nei topi e nei ratti. I cannabinoidi proteggono le normali cellule gliali astrogliale e oligodendrogliali dall’ apoptosi mediata dal recettore CB1. [10,11]

In un modello in vivo utilizzando topi con una grave immunodeficienza, vennero generati dei tumori sotto cutanei inoculando gli animali con cellule tumorali (del polmone) umane [12]. La crescita del tumore è stata ridotta del 60% nei topi trattati con il THC rispetto ai topi che componevano il gruppo di controllo. I campioni di tumore hanno rivelato che il THC ha avuto effetti antiangiogenici e antiproliferativi.

Inoltre, sia i cannabinoidi di origine vegetale che quelli endogeni sono stati studiati per i loro effetti anti-infiammatori. Uno studio sui topi ha dimostrato che sistema cannabinoide endogeno fornisce una protezione intrinseca contro l’infiammazione del colon. [13] Come risultato, è stata promulgata l’ipotesi che i phytocannabinoidi e gli endocannabinoidi potrebbero essere utili nella lotta al cancro colon/rettale [14].

Un altro studio ha dimostrato che il delta-9-THC è un potente agente antivirale selettivo contro il sarcoma di Kaposi (KSHV). [15] I ricercatori hanno concluso, garantendo un maggior approfondimento sugli studi dei cannabinoidi e degli herpesvirus, poiché essi porteranno allo sviluppo di farmaci che inibiscono la riattivazione di questi virus oncogeni. Successivamente, un altro gruppo di ricercatori ha riportato un aumento nell’efficienza dell’infezione umana KSHV nelle cellule dermiche microvascolari epiteliali in presenza di basse dosi di delta-9-THC [16].

STIMOLAZIONE DELL’APPETITO

Molti studi sugli animali hanno già dimostrato che il delta-9-THC e gli altri cannabinoidi hanno un effetto stimolante sull’appetito e sull’assunzione di cibo. Si ritiene che il sistema dei cannabinoidi endogeni possa servire come regolatore del comportamento alimentare. Il cannabinoide endogeno anandamide, potenzia notevolmente l’appetito nei topi. [17] Inoltre, i recettori CB1 nell’ipotalamo potrebbero essere coinvolti negli aspetti motivazionali e appaganti del mangiare [18].

ANTI DOLORIFICO

La comprensione del meccanismo attraverso cui i cannabinoidi inducono l’analgesia (assenza di dolore) è aumentata grazie allo studio dei recettori dei cannabinoidi, gli endocannabinoidi, e degli agonisti e antagonisti sintetici. Il recettore CB1 è presente sia nel sistema nervoso centrale (SNC) che nelle sue terminazioni nervose periferiche. Simile ai recettori degli oppioidi, livelli molto alti del recettore CB1 sono stati trovati nelle sezioni del cervello che regolano il processo nocicettivo [19]. Il recettore CB2, che si trova principalmente nei tessuti periferici, esiste a livelli molto bassi nel sistema nervoso centrale. Con lo sviluppo degli antagonisti dei recettori specifici, sono state ottenute ulteriori informazioni sul ruolo dei recettori cannabinoidi endogeni e sulla gestione del dolore. [20,21]

Fonte originale: cancer.gov / Traduzione a cura di: neovitruvian.wordpress.com

 


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